李志民Science刊文——2019聚焦年度突破:融合 创新(中英对照)
2019-12-20 李志民


2019 Focus on annual breakthroughs: Fusion and innovation

2019聚焦年度突破:融合 创新

The year 2019 marks the 70th anniversary of the founding of the People's Republic of China (PRC). After 70 years of ups and downs, China has developed into the world's second largest economy and the second largest scientific research output country. As 2020 approaches, we wish to highlight some of the technologies China worked on this year.

  2019年,中华人民共和国成立70周年。70年风雨兼程,70年沧桑巨变,中国已经发展成为世界第二大经济体、第二大科研产出国。2020即将到来,不妨回顾一下2019中国科技。

Better papers and better AI

  最新论文成果及AI科技

The year of 2019 is a memorable year for Chinese science and technology, especially in terms of innovation. Chinese researchers made important discoveries in exploring natural science phenomena, put forward breakthrough ideas in scientific theories and doctrines, and offered original, cutting-edge solutions to major scientific and technological issues that restrict national economic and social development.

  2019年,对于中国科技来说,这是一个值得纪念的年份,尤其是在创新方面。中国科技发展取得了一系列标志性成果。2019年,中国科研人员或在探索自然科学现象有重要发现,在科学理论、学说上有突破性创见;在解决制约国民经济和社会发展的重大科技问题上也有了重大创新。

On November 19, the Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (ISTIC) released the "China Outstanding Paper Output Report." The report shows that from 2009 to October 2019, Chinese scientific and technological personnel published a total of 2.61 million international papers, continuing to rank second in the world, with an increase of 14.7% over the 2018 statistics; In 2018, there were 315,900 outstanding scientific papers, with an increase of 12.4% over 2017. The citation numbers of papers in materials science, chemistry, and engineering technology ranked first in the world. These papers may not be a persuasive indicator, but to a certain extent this shows that China's scientific research output is of high quality, and that China has the ability to participate in international science collaborations.

  2019年11月19日,中国科学技术信息研究所发布中国卓越论文产出报告。该报告显示,2009年至2019年(截至2019年10月),中国科技人员共发表国际论文260.64万篇,继续排在世界第2位,数量比2018年统计时增加了14.7%;2018年中国卓越科技论文共计31.59万篇,比2017年增加12.4%。材料科学、化学和工程技术等3个领域论文的被引用次数排名世界第一。我们不唯论文,但这也在一定程度上表明,中国科研产出正向高质量转型,中国已具备参与国际大科学和大科学合作的能力。

On October 20, 15 world-leading technological achievements in the Internet were released at the 6th World Internet Conference, including the world's first brain-inspired computing chip from Tsinghua University. Supporting both machine learning algorithms and existing brain-like computing algorithms, this new chip is expected to clear the path for the development of more versatile artificial general intelligence (AGI) and hardware platforms as well as have a huge impact on industry and the economy.

  10月20日,包括清华大学的"面向通用人工智能的异构融合天机芯片"在内的15项世界互联网领先科技成果在第六届世界互联网大会上发布。这款新芯片支持机器学习算法和现有的类脑计算算法,有望为开发更多用途的通用人工智能(AGI)和硬件平台扫清道路。这些成果有望为人类生活、科技进步、经济发展、社会变革赋予强大动力。

Multiplying fields and talents

  研究领域及人才多元化

Many new disciplines have sprung up in the fields of natural sciences, humanities, and social sciences. In recent years, most of these new disciplines are created through the cross-fusion of the Internet and traditional disciplines, which is of great significance to the progress of disciplines and academic innovation. The "Wuzhen Outlook 2019 Report" released at the 6th World Internet Conference proposed that the deep integration of emerging technologies, such as artificial intelligence (AI), the Internet of Things (IoT), big data, cloud computing, and blockchain will create enormous opportunities to drive a new round of leaping social and economic developments.

  近年来,在自然科学、人文科学和社会科学领域催生出不少新学科。这些新学科大多由互联网与传统学科交叉融合而成,对于学科发展和学术创新都具有重要意义。在前段时间落下帷幕的第六届世界互联网大会上发布的《乌镇展望2019》提出,人工智能、物联网、大数据、云计算、区块链等新兴技术深度融合,将创造新的发展机遇,带动经济和社会实现新一轮跨越式发展。

Emerging technologies and industries provide a growing demand for inter-disciplinary talent, as well as further integration of these interdisciplinary programs into higher education. China has rearranged the discipline construction of higher education institutions. According to the "List of Self-Set Interdisciplinary Programs for General Colleges and Universities" announced by the Ministry of Education of China, as of May 31, there are 508 interdisciplinary programs independently managed as secondary disciplines by universities across the country. Major breakthroughs in scientific frontiers are now mostly the result of multidisciplinary integration. Let us look forward to more scientific breakthroughs and an international talent training mechanism in Chinese universities soon.

  新兴技术、新兴产业、新的跨越背后,是对复合型人才日益增长的需求,也就是对高等教育学科融合的新要求。中国已在高等院校学科建设方面有所布局。据统计,中国教育部公布的《普通高等学校自设交叉学科名单》中,截止2019年5月31日,全国普通高校自主设置的按二级学科管理的交叉学科有508个。当今世界,科学前沿的重大突破,重大原创性成果的产生,大多数是多学科交叉融合的结果,让我们期待更多的科研突破,期待中国高校人才培养国际化进程会更快。

Record-high R&D funding

  创记录的研究经费投入

China's breakthroughs in science and technology can be attributed to the continued growth of China's R&D investment. According to data released by the National Bureau of Statistics of China, China has achieved a historic breakthrough in the scale and intensity of its R&D expenditure. The R&D expenditure in 2018 reached 1,965.7 billion yuan (USD 279.2 billion), which was 138 times that of 1991. The intensity of investment in research and development has hit record highs, rising to 2.18% in 2018.

  中国科技能有这些突破,要归功于中国研发投入的持续增长:据中国国家统计局的统计数据显示,中国研发经费规模和强度实现历史性突破。2018年研发经费达19657亿元(2792 亿美元),是1991年的138倍。研发经费投入强度屡创新高, 2018年提升至2.18%。

In 2019, the China's top three university scientific research funding includes Tsinghua University of 15.375 billion yuan (USD 2.18 billion), Zhejiang University of 13.098 billion yuan (USD 1.86 billion), and Shanghai Jiaotong University of 10.815 billion yuan (USD 1.54 billion). Comparatively the top three in 2018 comprised 5.168 billion yuan ( 730 million USD) from Tsinghua University, 4.420 billion yuan (USD 630 million) from Zhejiang University, and 3.903 billion yuan (USD 550 million) from Sun Yat-sen University.

  2019年,位列前三高校的科研经费分别为清华大学153.75(21.8亿美元)亿元(人民币,下同)、浙江大学130.98亿元(18.6亿美元)和上海交通大学108.15亿元(15.4亿美元)。2018年前三数据则是:清华大学51.68亿(7.3亿美元)、浙江大学44.20亿元(6.3亿美元)、中山大学39.03亿元(5.5亿美元)。

Science with heart: improving work-life balance for researchers

  解决科技工作核心问题:平衡学者的工作与生活

In 2019, breakthroughs in China's science and technology policy will speed up the process of integrating knowledge innovation and market transformation. The reform of China's science and technology system has been carried out closely on two main lines: one is to enhance the morale of scientific and technological personnel, and the other is to promote the integration of science and technology with the economy, society, and national security. These two main lines work as an organic whole and exert their strengths in an all-round way.

  2019年,中国科技政策的突破让知识创新、市场转化一体化进程加快。中国科技体制改革一直紧扣两条主线展开:一条是调动科技人员的积极性,另一条是促进科技和经济的结合,加强科技对经济、社会、民生、生态和国家安全的支撑。这两条主线形成有机整体,全面发力。

The most recent policy change by the Chinese government is the "Notice on Nomination of the National Science and Technology Award for 2020" issued by relevant departments on November 29. This "Notice" points out that the country needs to prioritize papers, titles, qualifications, and prizes over citation number. In this spirit, the Natural Science Award will remove the criteria of applicants filling in SCI citations.

  2019年中国政府在科技政策突破方面,最近的是11月29日有关部门发布 《关于2020年度国家科学技术奖提名工作的通知》。《通知》指出,落实"破四唯"、"破SCI至上"精神,自然科学奖的提名取消要求申报人填报"SCI他引次数"等规定,切实为科研人员减负。

At present, China's various industries are booming, providing outstanding talents with unprecedented development space and a platform to display their skills. Talent from all over the world are thriving in China, thanks to generous funding. Chinese universities have developed talent plans with the goal of building first-class universities. Talents are provided with state-of-the art equipment excellent and world-class laboratory conditions. To allow these scientists to conduct research with a peace of mind, universities thoughtfully arrange jobs for spouses and education for children.

  当前,中国各项事业蓬勃发展,为优秀人才提供了前所未有的发展空间和施展才华的平台,来自世界各地的人才在中国获得了发展,得到了众多资助。中国高校以建设一流大学为目标,他们正在以前所未有的诚意和力度在全球引进人才,为人才提供优渥的物质条件、世界一流水平的实验条件;更贴心的解决了被引进人才的配偶工作、子女读书等诸多生活需求,让大家可以安心开展科研。

China is now undergoing rapid development with numerous opportunities available, and all universities are looking forward to the participation of global talents. Go, go to China! People in need can contact the talent service agencies of Academic Bridge(consultant@acabridge.edu.cn), which provides one-on-one consultations.

  现在的中国,高速发展,处处是机会,他们正在期待全球英才的加盟。走,到中国去!有需要的人可以与人才服务机构学术桥联系(邮箱地址:consultant@acabridge.edu.cn),学术桥提供一对一咨询服务。

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